What is a response variable in statistics?

In statistics, a response variable is the dependent variable to which one wants to find a relationship with another variable.

A response variable in statistics is also called the object of analysis. It is an observed quantity whose behavior or value depends on the values of (or relationships among) other variables, sometimes called explanatory variables. For example, average rainfall might be used as a response variable to compare with temperature and water availability at different locations and times. The term “response” refers not only to these statistical analyses but also reflects that people are most interested in knowing what they might do if they cannot change their outcome or situation (the “response”).