SSD is a flash drive, SATA is a storage device with rotating disks and HDD are hard disk drives.
SSDs have been shown to improve the speed of computers by about 10x over traditional mechanical disks. One downside, however, is that SSDs use more power than these same devices with a traditional disk. However they also last longer and take up less space so it all balances out in the end!
It’s important to remember that because SSDs require so much electricity they can’t last as long before becoming unusable. But this will typically be fine if you’re using them on a laptop for only a few years! The lifespan of an HDD should not be too distracting from finding an affordable and speedy option for carrying around files.
HDDs are what you will find in desktop computers and laptops; they were the original huge storage device before SSDs became popular. HDDs are typically less expensive than SSDs because they use rotating disks, which can be powerful when done correctly. They also give you the option for adding external hard drives to them.
In addition, HDDs tend to last longer than SSDs because the moving parts inside of them distribute heat over a larger area, but they also make a lot more noise.
All in all, SSDs are the way to go for speed and convenience while HDDs are the way to go for storage and affordability.